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Volume 7, No. 7 Articles
Title Authors Pages
Editorial: Back to the Future
Keeves, J.P. and Dix, K.L. 873-882
This editorial presents a retrospective statement on the International Education Journal and its relationship with the Flinders University Institute of International Education and Shannon Research Press. By doing so, a strategic model of research and publication practice within an academic community is presented that seeks to find sustainability in an increasingly challenging climate.
Teachers and their international relocation: The effect of self-esteem and pay satisfaction on adjustment and outcome variables
Richardson, W., von Kirchenheim, C. and Richardson, C. 883-894
This is the second of two papers investigating the adjustment process in a designated group of expatriates, (teachers), who have severed ties with their home country and employer. In the first paper we examined the effect of self-efficacy and flexibility within this adjustment process, revealing the significance of self-efficacy but failing to show a pronounced relationship between flexibility and adjustment (von Kirchenheim and Richardson, 2005). In this particular study, again based on existing literature, the value of self-esteem and pay satisfaction on the adjustment process was explored. Again, it was hypothesised that adjustment would result in reduced turnover intention, increased life satisfaction, and higher job satisfaction. Based on our findings, there would now appear to be some clear implications for individuals and organisations involved in the expatriation process. More specifically, from a personal point of view, there is evidence to suggest a direct relationship between specific personal characteristics, pay satisfaction, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. In essence, those who score high on scales which measure self-efficacy and pay satisfaction would appear to be the ones most likely to find success within the international relocation process. Thus, from an organisational perspective, the accurate measurement of some of these identified intrinsic and extrinsic factors may provide valuable information to the employer regarding those applicants that have the greatest probability of adjustment. Given that both studies looked exclusively at educators in its sampling, the implications for faculties of education, who are seeing increasing numbers of their graduates accept postings in foreign jurisdictions, are profound. Expatriate, adjustment, relocation, self esteem, pay satisfaction
White collar work: Career ambitions of Fiji final year school students
Nilan, P., Cavu, P., Tagicakiverata, I. and Hazelman, E. 895-905
The career ambitions of 1012 pupils in the final years of secondary schooling in Fiji were surveyed. The range of careers they nominated was very narrow, with teaching, nursing and other white collar work in the majority of responses. This stands in somewhat stark contrast to projected labour force needs, and the current serious shortage of skilled workers in key growth industries. Data on factors influencing pupil career choice indicated that over 80 per cent knew someone about the kind of job they were aiming for, and that many of these people were adults in their local environment. This finding emphasises the role schools must play if the skilled human resource potential of Fiji is to be realised. Schools in which a well-supported technical and vocational training program (TVET) was established tended to show much wider career ambitions, not only for TVET students but also for students in the academic strands. School-leavers, career ambitions, local influences, technical vocational education training, TVET, Mathematics
Using students' assessment of classroom environment to develop a typology of secondary school classrooms
Dorman, J.P., Aldridge, J.M. and Fraser, B.J. 906-915
Research employing the Technology-Rich Outcomes-Focused Learning Environment Inventory (TROFLEI) was conducted in Australian secondary schools. A sample of 4,146 students from 286 classes responded to the TROFLEI which assesses 10 classroom environment dimensions: student cohesiveness, teacher support, involvement, task orientation, investigation, cooperation, equity, differentiation, computer usage and young adult ethos. Validation data attested to the sound structural characteristics of the TROFLEI. Cluster analysis was used to develop a classroom typology of five relatively homogeneous groups of classes which were described as exemplary; safe and conservative; non-technological teacher-centred; contested technological and contested non-technological. Classroom environment, classroom typology, cluster analysis, technology-rich learning, outcomes-focused learning
Use of webcasting technology in teaching higher education
Yunus, A., Kasa, Z., Asmuni, A., Samah, B., Napis, S., Yusoff, M., Khanafie, M. and Wahab, H. 916-923
Schools and universities all over the world are continuously exploring ways to use the web technology in improving teaching effectiveness. The use of course web pages, discussion groups, bulletin boards, and e-mails have shown impact on teaching and learning in significant ways, across all disciplines. e-Learning has emerged as an alternative to traditional classroom-based education and training, especially for distance learning programs. Thus, this research study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the implementation of webcasting technology in teaching in higher education. In this research, three modes of webcasting lectures were experimented on three different groups of students, using the pre test-post test-control group experimental design. The modes are live streaming, pre-recorded streaming and video on demand (VOD). The group that attended the face-to-face lecture acts as the control group. The overall analysis showed that the students who went through the VOD group showed the most gain in the tests. Webcasting technology, online learning, web-based learning, distance learning, higher education
Mentoring primary school student teachers in Turkey: Seeing it from the perspectives of student teachers and mentors
Ekiz, D. 924-934
As the mentoring program has currently constituted a central component in the partnership established between primary schools and teacher education institutions, this research aimed to investigate the practice of mentoring from the perspectives of student teachers and class mentors. The data were collected by means of open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews from the participation of 55 primary school student teachers. Supplementary data were gathered through semi-structured interviews from five class mentors. The results demonstrate important issues such as the unshared understanding of student teachers' teaching experiences between class mentors and the teacher education institution, and that the mentoring program is inadequate in terms of time management. It is suggested that the class mentors should be helped to open up an important opportunity for how to evaluate their practices in order to evaluate those which the student teachers experience. Mentoring, primary school student teachers, qualitative study
Differentiated instruction: A research basis
Subban, P. 935-947
With contemporary classrooms becoming increasingly diverse, educational authorities, teachers and school administrators are looking to teaching and learning strategies that cater for a variety of learning profiles. A paradigm that is gaining ground in many educational circles is differentiated instruction. This model proposes a rethinking of the structure, management and content of the classroom, inviting participants within the learning context to become engaged in the process, to the benefit of all. While the model has been accepted and set to work, there remains room for theoretical support to give it momentum. A recent, comprehensive analysis of the literature in this area examines this model, within the context of increasing academic diversity. This paper therefore seeks to synthesise the research supporting a shift to a new exemplar for modern education, and in so doing shed light on the rationale supporting differentiated instruction. Differentiated instruction, curriculum, differentiation
Using multimedia case studies to advance pre-service teacher knowing
Pfister, C.C., White, D.L. and Masingila, J.O. 948-956
This paper uses Baxter Magolda's (1992) framework on ways of knowing to examine the effects of using multimedia case studies with beginning pre-service teachers (PSTs). Baxter Magolda referred to these ways of thinking as absolute, transitional, independent, and contextual. The written responses to two sets of tasks were analysed for 36 PSTs enrolled in their first education course at a large private university. The first task had the PSTs watch parts of a multimedia case and then discuss what they saw with peers and a facilitator. The second task had the subjects interact and make sense of a different multimedia case individually. Using Baxter Magolda's framework, each PST's responses to the events were coded. Results indicate that working together PSTs operated within contextual ways of knowing more often than they did when working alone. Implications for teacher educators are discussed. Pre-service teachers, multimedia case studies, ways of knowing
Unexpected learning competencies of Grades 5 and 6 pupils in public elementary schools : A Philippine report
Felipe, A.I. 957-966
The present study tested the assumption of a positive and linear relation between years of schooling and school learning in the Philippine setting. It replicated a 1976 study that had cast doubt on this assumption in the Philippine public educational system. It tested three competing hypotheses for that finding: common sense, the 1976 arrested development hypothesis, and the alternative accelerated development hypothesis. To test these competing hypotheses, two factors were systematically varied: the grade levels of Ss and the levels of the tests used. The competing hypotheses have different predicted outcomes. A total n of 7097 from 96 schools participated in the study. The results showed that on all tests Grade5 showed more competencies than Grades 4 and 6, although Grade 6 continued to perform better than Grade 4. When sub-test level was held constant in multiple comparisons, Grade 5 was learning more Grade 6 competencies, whereas Grade 6 was losing not only Grade 6 but also Grade 5 competencies. It is noted that whereas Grade 6 enjoyed a slight superiority in achievement scores circa 1976, the present study shows that Grade 5 enjoys an impressive superiority over Grade 6 circa 2003. That in Grade 6 one knows more competencies than in Grade 5 seems to be a myth. The common sense hypothesis has been ruled out. The results are consistent with the accelerated development hypothesis. Assessment, Philippines, basic education, comparative education, learning competencies
The culture and language learning of Chinese festivals in a kindergarten classroom
Yang, H.C. 957-991
Culture plays a vital role in second language learning. This paper presents an action research study that investigates the role of culture in a Chinese language program in a kindergarten classroom. Three topics have been explored: (a) culture as the core in the development of a thematic unit on Chinese festivals, (b) a culturally responsive pedagogy as a model of instruction, and (c) the assessment of student learning. Nine kindergarten children participated in this study. The thematic unit was undertaken for eight consecutive weeks. Five major Chinese festivals were integrated into this unit; the teaching and learning processes were examined to explore the application of a culturally responsive pedagogy. Diagnostic, formative, and summative assessments were administered to explore the children's learning. The assessments were based the participants' oral response to one-to-one interviews, their written responses on the Pictorial Attitudes Scale in a whole-group session, cultural artefacts, and drawing and writing products. Thematic curriculum unit, Chinese culture and language, multicultural education, culturally responsive pedagogy
Recent continuing education policies in Hong Kong: A focus on short-term performance through inducements
Cheung, K.S. 992-1006
In recent years, due to economic restructuring, the problems Hong Kong has been facing are the 'knowledge deficit' in the workforce and a shortage of well-educated manpower. The Hong Kong Government has implemented a number of continuing education policies with an ultimate goal to encourage and help the workforce to strengthen themselves with improved knowledge and skills. These policies rely on short-term inducements such as providing monetary subsidies and loans. As the recipients of inducements differ in their capacities, preferences and objectives, there exist problems of variability that depreciate the intended outcomes. Moreover, the long-term needs are undermined. Because of the lack of an overall plan and coordination, there are areas of duplication and inconsistency among the policies, leading to counter-effective administration. In this article, the recent continuing education policies in Hong Kong are reviewed critically with respect to the problems and community needs as well as the policy objectives and possible solutions. The Government's promises and shortcomings are discussed. Continuing education, education policy, policy analysis, policy review
Development and validation of a multiple format test of science process skills
Temiz, B.K., Tasar, M.F. and Tan, M.

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