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Volume 7, No. 3 Articles
Title Authors Pages
Challenges and opportunities facing Australian universities caused by the internationalisation of Chinese higher education
Wu, M. and Yu, P. 211-221
China opened its market to the world after it entered The World Trade Organisation (WTO) at the turn of the last century. The Chinese Ministry of Education recently reviewed a series of policies about international cooperation in higher education with foreign countries in an effort to standardise their practice through centralised control. The purpose of this paper is to analyse current features and trends in international cooperation in Chinese higher education. This paper also develops a benefit-driven model of the internationalisation of Chinese higher education, and attempts to address the reasons for the marketability of cooperative programs in China. Finally, this paper discusses the issues related to the internationalisation of Chinese higher education, and makes recommendations for Australian universities intending to enter the Chinese higher educational market successfully. Cooperative Programs, higher education, internationalisation, challenges, opportunities
The United Nations decade of education for sustainable development, its consequences for international political education, and the concept of global learning
Brunold, A.O. 222-234
Globalisation is one of the most important historical features that education is likely to experience in this century. The processes of globalisation need to be integrated with a set of social, technological, economic, cultural and ecological circumstances, so that people may begin to accept the fact that the world is facing a totally irreversible universal phenomenon. The concept of sustainable development integrates the factors that lead to a demand for global learning, education for sustainable development, and environmental education. United Nations, education for sustainable development, global learning, globalisation
Internet use in the developing world: A case study of an African university
Poda, I., Murry, J.W. and Miller, M.T. 235-244
The internet has become an indispensable tool in the twenty first century. However, the development may be slowed by a lack of appropriate facilities in less developed nations. A study of existing facilities in Burkina Faso was undertaken to answer five questions on the participants' perspectives on internet usage: (a) how do the participants perceive internet utilisation; (b) what factors encourage the use of the internet; (c) what factors discourage internet usage; (d) is the internet a tool for enhancing learning and (e) how can improved management of available technology lead to greater internet usage in the Humanities Faculty at Ouagadougou University? Participants were selected because of their interest and involvement with technology, their computer knowledge and their prior experience with the internet. The current status of internet knowledge and utilisation were examined and factors that influenced internet usage were considered. Six recommendations for improved practice at the post-secondary level were discussed. Internet, computer technology, rural access, Africa
Mapping self-confidence levels of nurses in their provision of nursing care to others with alcohol and tobacco dependence, using Rasch scaling
Blackman, I., de Crespigny, C. and Parker, S. 245-258
This study seeks to identify factors that influence the perceived complexity of providing nursing care to others (who are dependent on alcohol and tobacco) and the confidence of undergraduate student nurses to carry out this care. The research project is designed to explore whether there is a difference between the perceived complexities of 57 different nursing tasks and skills as understood by student nurses and their differing ages, gender and types of first language used. By using a probabilistic measurement approach (Rasch model), the study seeks to assess whether a scale of performance for learning can be constructed based on the difficulty of nursing care required and the self-rated capacity of the undergraduate nursing students to provide the nursing care. Outcomes of the study suggest that nursing students do differ significantly both in how they view the complexity of providing nurse care and their capacity to provide that nursing care. Recommendations are made for informing nursing education programs, in a bid to make nursing care as it relates to others who are substance dependent, more effective. Rasch scaling, partial credit model, attitude measurement, alcohol and tobacco dependence
Vocational and technical education in Lebanon: Strategic issues and challenges
Karam, G. 259-272
The current status of the Lebanese vocational and technical education (VTE) system is assessed and the strategic issues and challenges facing it are identified. In addition to the economic and social challenges that are common to many developing countries, the Lebanese system suffers from idiosyncratic problems, which may require innovative and bold reform strategies. The results of the first open consultations in the history of VTE with public and private sector stakeholders and key decision makers are analysed. These results are used to confirm the analysis of the current situation and to chart a strategic planning process for policy making, reform, and improved effectiveness in Lebanese vocational and technical education. Vocational education, technical education, educational policy, educational reform, effectiveness improvement, Lebanon
Cultural barriers in educational evaluation: A comparative study on school report cards in Japan and Germany
Urabe, M. 273-283
This paper discusses cultural barriers in educational assessment by comparing Japanese and German school report cards. The discussions on assessment fluctuate between two intellectual extremes: objectified selection or educational diagnosis. In Japan, many teachers make written comments on school report cards with ambiguous expressions to avoid negatively motivating their students. German school report cards, on the other hand, are objective, but may cause pressure through their focus on marks. An analysis of examples of German and Japanese report cards reveals that Japanese report cards give priority to educational diagnosis while German report cards focus on objective selection. It depends on the culture and, in particular, cultural barriers as to which dimension is given priority. A cultural barrier is unique to people of the same cultural group. Japanese cultural barriers are characterised by concern for others' emotions and as such they prefer to use indirect communication. German cultural barriers, in contrast, are characterised by honesty which makes it difficult to report anything but the truth. Therefore, it can be difficult for Germans to flatter by distorting the truth. Japan, Germany, cultural barrier, evaluation, assessment, school report card, objectified selection; educational diagnosis
Enhancing access in theory and practice: A study of graduates of an Israeli large public college in 1995-2003
Davidovitch, N. and Soen, D. 284-304
This paper carefully follows graduates of the largest of Israel's public colleges, their success in their studies at the College, and in their studies towards graduate degrees in institutions of higher education in Israel. It explores who these graduates are, where they came from, their academic success, and where they headed after attaining an undergraduate degree. The aim is to examine the links between graduates' academic success and the preliminary conditions for their admission, that is the socio-economic background from which they developed and their scholastic achievements prior to admission into the college. The paper cautiously indicates that the College fulfilled its social objective as defined by the Commission for Higher Education's decision to establish a system of colleges alongside the universities. It also points to several patterns typical of graduates of institutions of higher learning in Israel in general, from a broader perspective of academic graduates in the Western world. Higher education, stratified system, graduates, academic success, scholastic achievement, family background
Implementation and evaluation of the debate-style tutorial study in a third-year dental curriculum in Japan
Shingaki, R., Kamioka, H., Irie, M. and Nishimura, F. 305-313
We introduced a debate-style tutorial exercise into the third-year tutorial classes with the purpose of developing the students' logic, broadening their vision and encouraging them to express their opinions in public, before an audience. The issues for debate included medical (dental) and non-medical topics. Two separate debate exercises were performed and each session concluded with an open debate. The groups' performance was evaluated by the audience, which included students and tutors. The groups received high scores; their understanding of the subjects was superior and they provided logical arguments using good presentation skills. The program appeared to have had the desired results. Thus, it was suggested that the introduction of debates into the curriculums of lower classes would be effective in teaching students new ways of thinking about problems. This would prepare them suitably for future education. Debate, tutorial classes, problem based learning, dental education, decision-making
Study abroad as innovation: Applying the diffusion model to international education
Spiering, K. and Erickson, S. 314-322
This paper uses diffusion of innovation theory as a framework for studying why United States college students who attend study abroad information sessions fail to take advantage of such educational opportunities. Surveys were administered to two groups of undergraduate students - those who studied abroad and those who did not. Students ranked their decision based on five attributes of diffusion theory, relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability. The results indicated relative advantage and trialability were the most important factors in deciding to study abroad, while those choosing not to study abroad ranked complexity and compatibility as the primary reasons. Recommendations include targeting the role of study abroad adviser as a change agent to influence student study abroad decisions and educating faculty about the benefits of studying abroad. Study abroad, diffusion of innovation theory, change agent, college students, study adviser, international education
Readability approaches: Implications for Turkey
Ulusoy, M. 323-332
Finding the right fit between students' reading ability and textbooks is very important for comprehension. Readability studies aim to analyse texts to find the right fit between students and texts. In this literature review, readability studies are classified under quantitative, qualitative and combined quantitative-qualitative readability approaches. The quantitative approach includes readability formulas, cloze test, and checklists and scales. The qualitative approach consists of leveling and checklists. The combined qualitative and quantitative readability approach is new in the field. In this approach, readability formulas can be used together with benchmark passages and checklists. The literature shows that readability formulas rely heavily on surface features of a text, and gives a rough estimate of the text readability. The qualitative approach focuses on the quality of writing style, and is criticised as being too subjective. The paper concludes by evaluating the implications of readability studies for Turkey. Readability, quantitative and qualitative approaches, Turkey, cloze procedure
Teaching leadership in the Russian Federation: Looking through the post-Soviet lens
Brouwer, L.F. 333-347
This paper addresses the Fulbright experience of an American faculty member in Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation. Both course content and teaching method are contrasted with what is traditional and customary in that region. The author regularly kept a journal, enabling thoughtful post-experience reflection. Continued emphasis on the "collective", as well as a Russian colleague's identification of "the gap between what and how" in post-Soviet culture, helped the author to focus both academic and practical challenges facing students and faculty. Leadership, teaching, cross-cultural, Russian, Fulbright Scholarship
Popular culture in mainland Chinese education
Ho, W.C. 348-363
The policy and practice of school education in mainland China have changed in response to the political and economic reformations and opening-up of the late 1970s. This paper argues that, despite the introduction and emphasis on popular culture in some areas of school education, traditional Chinese culture and values continue to consolidate the authority of the State. The paper first establishes a framework for the analysis of popular culture in education. Secondly, it enquires into the policy of incorporating popular culture in education and educational reform, in accordance with current social changes in China. Thirdly, the paper analyses three pairs of social and political relationships that shape education and cultural identity in the school curriculum: (a) between collectivist Communist education and individualist popular culture; (b) between the education of Chinese traditions and virtues on the one hand, and popular culture on the other; and (c) between schools' and teachers' attitudes toward popular culture, and students' reactions to classroom learning. The paper concludes with a discussion of the contentious political issues surrounding the integration of popular culture in education. Mainland China, popular culture, education reform, social change, challenge
Sources and manifestations of stress in female kindergarten teachers
Tsai, E., Fung, L. and Chow, L. 364-370
The study of teacher stress is not a new area of research. However, most of the published research studies have been strongly oriented towards primary and secondary school teachers. Given that the teaching environment of kindergarten differs greatly from primary and secondary schools, this study sets out to examine the sources and manifestations of stress of Hong Kong female kindergarten teachers. Results suggest that Time Management and Work-related stressors are more common sources of stress whereas feelings of Fatigue and Emotional related symptoms are more common manifestations of stress. Stress sources, stress manifestations, female teachers, kindergarten teachers
Relationship between entry qualifications and performance in graduate education
Alias, M. and Zain, A.F.M. 371-378
It is generally accepted that the undergraduate cumulative point average (UCPA) is associated with graduate performance of the same discipline. Less known, however, is how good the UCPA at predicting graduate performance in a different discipline. This paper discusses a study on the relationship between UCPA, undergraduate program of study, and graduate performance - operationalised as graduate CPA (GCPA) - in a Master in Technical and Vocational Education program (MTVE). Data were gathered on UCPA, their undergraduate program of study, gender and previous university of 612 MTVE students using their application forms and academic records. The large number of programs of study was reduced to five groups of disciplines namely, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Business and Management, and Others. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were used to analyse the data. The results showed that both undergraduate program of study and UCPA are predictors of GCPA and the extent to which UCPA contributes towards GCPA varies across programs of study. Graduate studies, undergraduate performance, teacher training, technical education, correlation
Private schooling industry in North East India: A trend analysis of Nagaland State
Mishra, B., Suresh, P.S. and Rio, K. 379-390
The present study is an attempt to examine the intricacies of the growth of Private School industry in the North-Eastern Indian State of Nagaland. The study was carried out in Kohima, the capital city of Nagaland State. Data were obtained from field studies as well as from published reports of the Government. The main objective of the study was to ascertain the trends and structure of growth of private school industry. The empirical analysis was carried out by fitting the data to quadratic, cubic, logistic, and the Preece-Baines Curves. The findings revealed that over the years, the trend and structure of growth of private schools has remained positively correlated with the capacity of absorption, quality of the product and their performance and reputation. The results corroborate our hypothesis that the private school industry has emerged not only to take the advantages of the deficiencies of the market economy, but also as a profit making industry. Nagaland, private schooling, quadratic trend, Preece-Baines curve, Kohima

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