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Volume 6, No. 5 Articles
Title Authors Pages
Teacher-child relationships in Turkish and United States schools: A cross-cultural study
Beyazkurk, D. and Kesner, J.E. 547-554
Recent educational research utilising Bowlby's attachment theory has focused on children's interpersonal relationships with their teachers. Research in this area has indicated that the security of the teacher-child relationship influences children's development in many of the same ways as secure parent-child attachments. The purpose of this study is to examine and compare a United States and Turkish sample of teachers and their perceived relationships with their students. It was hypothesised that because teachers in the United States receive more information related to the developmental needs of children, they would be more sensitive to the need for closeness in teacher-child relationships. Results indicate that, in fact, Turkish teachers report less conflict and more closeness to their students than did United States teachers. Attachment, relationships, multicultural, teachers, children, Turkey, United States
An examination of two case studies used in building a decision-making model
Lindgren-Gatfield, R. and Hyde, M. 555-566
Higher education in Australia contributed almost $3 billion to the Australian economy in 2000 and education has become an essential source of export profits. Australia now provides university places for over six per cent of the global student population. However, there is little empirical research undertaken in that domain. The research underpinning this paper addresses this problem by focusing on students from Singapore, which represent an overseas student client group of Asia. It sets out to explore personal, environmental and behavioural factors that influence educational decisions of students from Singapore, and to build a model that represents the complex interaction of factors and processes involved. While a built model is the major objective, the focus of this paper is on one component, the two interpretive, in-depth case studies. These present an interpretive phenomenological perspective that represents the complexity of individual experiences and supplements the quantitative research and building of a descriptive decision-making model. Decision-making, Singapore students, Australian universities
Language difficulties of international students in Australia: The effects of prior learning experience
Sawir, E. 567-580
Globalisation has placed a growing importance on English language speaking and listening. Prior research indicates that many international students from Asia, studying in Australia, face serious learning difficulties and lack confidence in speaking and taking a proactive role in classrooms. The paper reports on data gathered in interviews with students from five Asian nations, which suggest that these learning difficulties are grounded in weaknesses in students' prior learning experiences - focused on grammar and reading skills in teacher-centred classrooms, not conversational skills - and in beliefs about language learning instilled during schooling. The paper proposes strategies for overcoming these problems. International students, international market, English as a foreign language, beliefs about learning, conversational skills
The children's peace project: Service-learning and art education
Taylor, P.G. 581-586
This paper presents the case of a service-learning art experience in an after-school housing development program. Beginning with a dialogue concerning peace and how it can become part of their world, children and pre-service teachers explored and connected the idea of peace through symbols, metaphor and idealism in works of art. A critical and reflective account of this experience demonstrates the ways that young children and pre-service art teachers can benefit from meaningful and socially relevant service-learning activities. Service-learning, art, education, peace
Public-private partnership in a minimally invasive education approach
Jha, S. and Chatterjee, S. 587-597
In developing countries like India, the onus of development lies mainly with the government, which faces the predicament of multiple demands and limited resources. This leads to a situation where even fundamental objectives such as basic literacy for all are not met. On the other hand, there exists a vibrant private sector, which has resources and the desire to undertake social responsibility. This sector is also coming up with innovative approaches to overcome barriers to education and is targeting the have-nots. Minimally Invasive Education (MIE) is one such endeavour. This paper discusses results obtained from Madangir (New Delhi), one of the sites where MIE learning stations were installed. It encourages children to learn on their own, with minimal, or no intervention. Children are provided with free access to computers in an open outdoor location. The informal environment enables children to acquire computer literacy, enhance their academic levels and imbibe other life skills. This project is an illustration of a public-private partnership between the Government of Delhi and NIIT (India's leading private sector corporation offering IT education, training and global IT learning solutions) to overcome digital illiteracy. Public-private partnership, minimally invasive education, computing skills, social networking, academic achievement
Prevalence of peer victimisation among secondary school students in Nigeria
Popoola, B.I. 598-606
The study investigated the prevalence of peer victimisation among secondary school students in a state in South Western Nigeria. Participants consisted of 385 secondary school students selected from ten secondary schools across 10 local government areas in Osun State, Nigeria. The participants, aged between 10 and 19 years, were stratified into junior and senior secondary classes. The Multidimensional Peer-Victimisation Scale was used to collect data on four types of peer-victimisation commonly found among students. Results from descriptive and inferential analysis of data indicate that the majority of participants reported overall high levels of peer victimisation with attack on property as the most frequent form of peer victimisation. There were significant differences between male and female participants on all forms of victimisation with females reporting higher level of social victimisation, verbal victimisation and attack on property than males. The study also found that while students' level of study did not significantly influence the extent to which they were victimised by peers, age was a significant factor in reported levels of peer victimisation. The study brings into focus the need to make guidance services functional in Nigerian secondary schools to overcome the problem of bullying and peer victimisation. Peer victimisation, bullying, aggressive behaviour, peer oppression, peer harassment
Classroom interaction in private schools serving low-income families in Hyderabad, India
Smith, F., Hardman, F. and Tooley, J. 607-618
This paper reports on a study of classroom interaction and discourse in privately-funded schools serving low-income families in Hyderabad, India. In common with other developing countries, India has seen a proliferation of such schools and yet little systematic study has been made of them. One hundred and thirty eight lessons were analysed using a computerised systematic observation system; a further 20 lessons were video recorded and analysed using discourse analysis. The findings reveal patterns of classroom interaction and discourse similar to those reported in earlier studies of Indian government primary schools. Teacher-led recitation, rote and repetition dominated the classroom discourse with little attention being paid to securing pupil understanding. The wider implications of the findings for improving the quality of classroom discourse in Indian primary schools are considered together with the need for further research into how the wider social order is influencing pedagogic practices. Classroom interaction, observation, discourse, primary school, private education, India
Lecturers' perception of student evaluation in Nigerian universities
Iyamu, E.O.S. and Aduwa-Oglebaen, S.E. 619-625
The need for improvement in undergraduate instruction in Nigerian Universities necessitated this investigation. The survey used a random sample of 200 lecturers drawn from five of the public universities in Nigeria. It sought to find out how lecturers perceive the importance of student evaluation, both for formative and summative purposes. The 20-item questionnaire used for the collection of data had a reliability coefficient of 0.61. The data collected were analysed using the Z-test statistic. It was found that lecturers generally do not accept student evaluation, particularly when it is for summative purposes. Despite lecturers' apprehension, it is recommended that student evaluation of classroom teaching should be made mandatory and conducted regularly in Nigerian universities. Formative evaluation, summative evaluation, university teaching, Nigeria
Primary education in Vietnam: Extra classes and outcomes
Ha, T.T. and Harpham, T. 626-634
Extra classes are increasingly observed in both developed and developing countries. In Vietnam, a country where education reforms are at their height, extra classes are proliferating and have become a concern to society and the government. Although the government has banned extra classes that are independent of school administration, teachers often run home-based classes to supplement their income. This paper examines the extent and characteristics of extra classes among eight-year-old children, and examines the association between taking extra classes and learning outcomes (numeracy, reading, and writing skills). Vietnam, primary education, extra class, learning outcomes
The impact of ICT on learning: A review of research
Eng, T.S. 635-650
Since its introduction to the education arena in the 1960s, computers have both intrigued and frustrated teachers and researchers alike. The many promising prospects of computers and its applications did not materialise, and research into their effectiveness in learning has left many unanswered questions. The methods used in educational research of this nature in the past and present have evolved over the years. Quantitative studies such as meta-analyses are still widely used in the United States while recent large-scale research in United Kingdom used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Findings from these research studies have indicated small positive effects and consequently a need for more in-depth and longitudinal studies into the impact of ICT on learning in the future. ICT, qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, meta-analysis, learning
ICT in Schools - or How ICT Can Create New, Open Learning Environments
The Untested Accusation: Principals, Research Knowledge, and Policy Making in Schools
Tenri, S. 655-658
The main objective of Biddle and Saha in their study was to challenge the view that educational research has weak methods, vacuous contributions, minimal or non-existent impact, feckless characters and lack of evidence. Secondly, they sought information about how generated-research knowledge is disseminated and diffused to principals and what types of sources most principals read and cited. The study also investigated principals' attitudes toward the value of research knowledge and sought to find out if the principals had a deep understanding of that knowledge. Finally, the study investigated whether or not research knowledge had an impact on principals' thinking and policy-making in schools. The study was conducted with a sample of 120 school principals in the United States and in Australia.

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