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Volume 6, No. 4 Articles
Title Authors Pages
Finding the true incidence rate of plagiarism
Price, J. and Price, R. 421-429
This paper reports on research that explores the use of detection software in the fight against plagiarism. The aim of the research was to determine if the true incidence rate of plagiarism could be found for a cohort of Higher Education students. The paper outlines the problems and issues when attempting this. In addition, this report highlights the views of students when such a service is being used. The findings suggest that the use of such detection services is not without problems and raises the issue that such services may have less value in detection and more value as a learning and teaching tool. Plagiarism, detection software, higher education
The effectiveness of problem-based learning in the web-based environment for the delivery of an undergraduate physics course
Atan, H., Sulaiman, F. and Idrus, R.M. 430-437
This paper reports the investigation of the effectiveness of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) within a web-based environment in the delivery of an undergraduate Physics course. The effectiveness was evaluated by comparing the performances and the perceptions of the sample students (n=67) using the web-based PBL and comparing the outcomes with those of the web-based Content-Based Learning (CBL). The comparative post-test performance analysis conducted using a student t-test statistical analysis (p<0.05) revealed that the experimental web-based PBL approach yielded better performances than the controlled CBL approach. Where perceptions were concerned, the analysis also revealed that students exposed to the web-based PBL approach responded more positively with their knowledge enhancement compared to students exposed to the web-based CBL approach. Problem-based learning, web-based learning environment, physics education, constructivism, online learning
Booni Valley women's perceptions of schooling: Hopes and barriers
Pardhan, A. 438-445
Schooling for girls is a relatively recent process in Booni Valley, a remote mountainous village in Chitral District, Pakistan. It is impacting greatly upon the lives of the women. This study has taken an ethnographic perspective and has assumed that an understanding of women's schooling requires a detailed, in-depth account of women's actual experiences in a specific cultural setting. The women in the study perceive their local language, Khowar, as having little value and place great importance upon learning Urdu and English, the official languages of Pakistan. The women also perceive schooling to increase their mobility and independence and to gain access to employment. However, gender structures are deeply rooted. The women encounter many barriers which restrict them from participating in many activities in the community. Women, schooling, ethnographic research, Pakistan
The potential of Singapore's ability driven education to prepare students for a knowledge economy
Tan, C. 446-453
This paper focuses on the attempt by the Singapore government to introduce a new education paradigm to prepare students for success in a knowledge economy. The paper highlights the policy statements and changes for a new paradigm known as an Ability Driven Education (ADE) in Singapore. The ADE, launched as part of the Thinking Schools, Learning Nation vision in 1997, has the explicit aim of developing creative, innovative and life-long learners who will rise to the challenges presented by a knowledge economy. The paper discusses the potential of the ADE to prepare students for a knowledge economy by exploring some issues and challenges in Singapore. The concluding section raises implications for the key stakeholders of education in Singapore. Ability Driven Education, knowledge economy, Singapore, life-long learners
Democratic development and the role of citizenship education in sub-Saharan Africa with a case focus on Zambia
Abdi, A.A., Ellis, L. and Shizha, E. 454-466
In addressing issues related to problems of democratisation in Africa, this paper attempts to relate the issue to the need for citizenship education and the role that can play in social development. Citizenship should be central to the formation of viable civil societies that claim a tangible stake in national public spaces in post-Cold War Africa. These and related topics are discussed relative to new possibilities that could lead to the full realisation of the concept as well as the practice of enfranchised citizenship and inclusive social development in aspiring democracies in the Sub Saharan African context. The complexity of the development ‘problematique’ that Sub-Saharan Africa is facing is unique in that it is multi-dimensional, but above all else, politically located. It is, therefore, central to our discussions here that to correct the continent’s current schemes of underdevelopment, pragmatic schemes of governance must be achieved. To do that, we are suggesting, new possibilities of citizenship education should be formulated for the general African scene in general, and for democratising but still both institutionally and economically weakened Zambia. Citizenship education, democratisation, structural adjustment programs, civil society, sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia
Technology integration in education in developing countries: Guidelines to policy makers
Jhurree, V. 467-483
Technology such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a potent force in driving economic, social, political and educational reforms. Countries, particularly developing ones, cannot afford to stay passive to ICT if they are to compete and strive in the global economy. The health of the economy of any country, poor or rich, developed or developing, depends substantially on the level and quality of the education it provides to its workforce. Education reform is occurring throughout the world and one of the tenets of the reform is the introduction and integration of ICT in the education system. The successful integration of any technology, thus ICT, into the classroom warrants careful planning and depends largely on how well policy makers understand and appreciate the dynamics of such integration. This paper offers a set of guidelines to policy makers for the successful integration of ICT into the classroom. Technology integration, developing countries, policy makers, ICT in education guidelines, education reform
Adjustment problems of Iranian international students in Scotland
Mehdizadeh, N. and Scott, G. 484-493
“Please understand (with sincere heart) the need of the overseas students. The differences in culture and religion do not mean that we cannot stay and live together happily.” (Student comment, Rogers and Smith, 1992, p.7) Despite the important contribution of the adjustment of international students to successful academic performance in the host country, little research has been done in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to collect factual information about adjustment problems of Iranian international students in Scotland, such as psycho-social and cultural adjustment problems. The findings of this study underline the importance of sojourn’s expectations in cross-cultural adjustment particularly in the case of migrants from developing countries to Western countries and also the role of religion in adjustment. On the other hand, this study questions the role of the acculturation particularly in the case of international students and adjustment. The study concludes by making a series of recommendations to agencies involved with international students. These include provision of more pre-arrival information, better accommodation, extensions of financial or employment support and improved support to the barriers of students. Adjustment, international students, Iranian students, family and social factors, Scotland
Autonomy and liberalism in a multicultural society
Jewell, P. 494-500
That children should be educated to be ideal citizens, capable of making rational and informed decisions, has been proposed in cultures ranging from Ancient Greece to current societies. In particular, societies that favour liberalism preach the primacy of the individual autonomous citizen and a concomitant tolerance for others. In modern multicultural societies, ways must be found to maintain stability and tolerance of cultural differences. Some cultures do not favour the primacy of the autonomous individual, so educators face a dilemma. Should they promote autonomy in their students, even though that is counter to some cultures' values, or should they abandon promoting autonomy in favour of even-handed treatment of all cultural values? This paper argues for the former, maintaining that educators have a duty, as a matter of professional ethics, to equip their students with the ability to make their own decisions in a modern complex world. Autonomy, liberalism, ethics, multicultural, citizens
Emirati pre-service teachers' perceptions of Europe and Europeans and their teaching implications
Kostoulas-Makrakis, N. 501-511
In our increasingly globalised world, it is very important to see how Europe is perceived by non-Europeans and especially from people who have for a long time been considered the 'Other'. In the study reported here, the image of Europe and Europeans is explored based on the perceptions of 478 Emirati (United Arab Emirates citizens) prospective teachers. In general, the results reveal that the respondents' perceptions of Europe and Europeans are mainly negative, although there are also some positive and neutral perceptions. Emirati perceptions of Europe and Europeans confer to one major point that Europe represents economic, scientific and technological development but Europeans lack moral values. The findings have to be understood as reflecting the socio-cultural, political and historical milieu to which the subjects of the present study have been exposed. Suggestions to teaching methods, school curricula and study programs are made. Arabs, Europe, stereotypes, intercultural education, United Arab Emirates
The shifting paradigm: Who is the intellectual of the 21st century?
Farahani, A.J. 512-515
The world is in a constant state of flux and as a consequence, definitions and perceptions of the word intellectual are subject to change. This paper undertakes a succinct historical review regarding this notion by considering two paradigms, which are called here the ‘Lake Paradigm’ and the ‘Well Paradigm’. It is argued that these two paradigms fail to educate the intellectual of 21st century. Then a new paradigm, the ‘Valley Paradigm,’ is put forward, which is thought to be capable of educating a new generation of intellectuals. Intellectual, learning, education, interdisciplinary, knowledge
Multicultural education and racism: The case of Arab-Australian students in contemporary Australia
Mansouri, F. and Trembath, A. 516-529
This paper discusses the social and cultural dimensions of the educational experiences of Arab-Australian students. It seeks to explore the cultural attitudes and the social experiences of Arab-Australian secondary school students from two schools situated in Melbourne's northern region. The paper seeks to examine how Arab-Australian students and their families understand and construct their own social and educational experiences in relation to schools' initiatives as well as wider social discourses. The empirical findings presented in this paper suggest that there are critical links between Arab-Australian students' perceptions of belonging, identity and citizenship on the one hand, and their attitudes to schooling and educational experiences on the other. The study's findings show the need for current patterns of multicultural education research and practice to incorporate more systematically socio-political dynamics beyond the confines of school and family factors. Racism, identity, multicultural education, Arab-Australian students, Australian identity
Adult education in Nigeria: The consequence of neglect and agenda for action
Nnazor, R. 530-536
In spite of the rich variety of natural resources in Nigeria, the country is still very much underdeveloped. Within and outside Nigeria, analysts are of the view that the country clearly has the potential to be prosperous. As Nigeria attempts without much success to pull itself out of the quagmire of underdevelopment, the inevitably persistent question has been: given the resources at its disposal, why has the country remained mired in poverty? This paper attempts to provide a partial answer by arguing that Nigeria's inadequate commitment, over the years, to pursue the development of adult education as a strategic objective, as well as an instrument for national development has been one of the major drawbacks to the country's efforts to pull itself out of poverty. Underscoring the role of education in contemporary society, the paper proposes an adult education agenda for Nigeria. Adult education, adult learning, development education, Nigerian education, entrepreneurship education
The study of sociology in Turkish higher education
Kasapoglu, A.
This paper seeks to reveal the differences among seven departments of sociology in Turkish universities based on studies carried out since 1985 by sociologists working in these departments. Since sociology and sociological education started in 1914, there have been many evaluations of sociology in Turkey. The present study differs from others in its evaluation methods.The basic assumption of this study was that none of the sociological studies could be carried out within the confines of only one sociological subfield such as economic or educational sociology. Based on this assumption, a six- point evaluation tool known as a composite index was used in each study. After collecting publications, a group of sociologists held comprehensive discussions and allocated the proportion of the composition for each sociological subfield represented in each study. The results, based on sociologists' published studies in seven well-established departments in Turkey, showed that there were major differences between departments. Among them was Middle East Technical University (METU), where teaching was in English and many staff members had been educated in England or the United States. The sociology department in that university was the leader in almost every field studied. Turkey, sociology, sociology education

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